Calamba, officially known as the City of Calamba (Filipino: Lungsod ng Calamba) and often referred to as Calamba City, is a component city of Laguna, Philippines. It is the regional center of the Calabarzon region. It is situated 54 kilometres (34 mi) south of Manila, the city is known as the Resort Capital of the Philippines because of its numerous hot spring resorts, which are mostly located in Barangay Pansol, Bucal and Bagong Kalsada.According to the 2015 census, the city has a population of 454,486 people, making it the most populous local government unit in Laguna. It is the 5th densest city in the province with more than 2,600 people per square kilometer after San Pedro, Biñan, Cabuyao and Santa Rosa. Based on the overall rankings of the 2014 Cities and Municipalities Index, the city ranked 18th in the overall competitiveness (cities ranking) and 1st among cities in the Calabarzon region. The City of Calamba is the hometown of the Philippine national hero, Jose Rizal.
Calamba lies on the northern slopes of Mount Makiling, a dormant volcano. The southern terminus of the South Luzon Expressway is in Calamba and this geographic position makes the city a gateway to the southern provinces of Luzon. The highway at the end of the South Luzon Expressway leads east to the other towns of Laguna and south towards the provinces of Batangas and Quezon. Calamba City is bordered by Cabuyao City to the north, Los Baños to the east, by the province of Batangas to the south, specifically the municipalities of Santo Tomas, Tanauan City and Talisay, and by the province of Cavite to the west, with Tagaytay City and Silang. Laguna de Bay the country's largest lake, forms the city's northwest border. The provincial capital, Santa Cruz, is located 45 kilometres (28 mi) by road to the east. Calamba covers a total land area of 14,950 hectares (36,900 acres), making it is the 2nd largest city in Laguna province in terms of land area after San Pablo City The name of the city comes from a legend that during the early time of the Spanish period in the country, two "guardias civil" or soldiers were lost and passing through what is now Calamba. The soldiers met a young lady who came from a river carrying a jar of water and a clay stove. The soldiers unwittingly in Spanish language and in authoritative tone, to conceal the fact that they were lost, asked the local maiden the name of the place they were in. The lady, who speaks only her native language, naturally thought she was being interrogated about what she was carrying and nervously uttered "kalan-banga", meaning "clay stove" (kalan) and "water jar" (banga). Because the Spaniards could not pronounce it properly, the town has been called Calamba supposedly since then. This legend is immortalized with a large concrete water jar erected in the city plaza with the names of the city's barangays written on its surface. It is now known as Calambanga and is considered the "World's Biggest Claypot.
The oldest part of Calamba is believed to be Barangay Sucol where its first settlers remained. With the arrival of Spaniards, the whole area was converted into a hacienda, then a part of Tabuco (now known as Cabuyao City). Calamba became an independent pueblo on August 28, 1742, and formed into the town of Calamba in 1770. After a process of more than seven years, Calamba became the second component city of the Laguna by virtue of Republic Act No. 9024, "An Act Converting the Municipality of Calamba, Province of Laguna into a Component City to be known as the City of Calamba." R.A. 9024 was signed into law by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on March 5, 2001, at the Malacañan Palace. The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) then set the plebiscite for Calamba’s cityhood on April 21, 2001 where 15,056 residents participated. 3,413 or 22.67% voted "No" while the remaining 77.33% voted "Yes" to Calamba’s conversion into a component city. Calamba City is known today as the "Richest City in Calabarzon", (according to the 2014 Commission on Audit Annual Audit Report), as it registered a total income of ₱2,501,048,126.00. Calamba is also considered as one of the "Next Wave Cities" for outsourcing firms. The major income sources comes from manufacturing and economic plants, tourism, agriculture and services. There are many manufacturing and economic plants located in upland barangays like Canlubang, Real, La Mesa, Milagrosa, Makiling, Punta, Barandal, Batino and Prinza. As of December 31, 2013, there are 83 banking offices operating in the city that offers banking services to businesses and residents according to Philippine Deposit Insurance Corporation. Calamba is the top city in Calabarzon with total deposits amounting to 29,632,884 in thousand pesos from 374,122 accounts.
The city is a haven for industries. Considered as the heart of Calabarzon due to the number of companies housed in its area, Calamba City is one of the premiere industrial hubs outside of Metro Manila. Some of the industrial parks located in the city. Food processing plants in Calamba like Zenith Foods Corp. (central commissary of Jollibee Foods Corporation), where its sauces and food products (i.e. burger, pies, fries, etc.) are first made before distributing to Jollibee outlets is currently the most advanced food processing plant in the Philippines and one of the best in Asia. Other food and beverage processing plants in Calamba are Rebisco, RC Cola, Monde-M.Y. San Corporation and Zest-O Corporation. Some of the semiconductor companies are also located in Calamba. To name a few, they are Samsung Electronics Philippines, Continental Temic Electronics Philippines, Toshiba Storage Device Philippines Inc., ST Microelectronics (formerly Philips Electronics), Fuji Electric Philippines, NEC Tokin Electronics, NEC Toppan Circuit Solutions and Austriamicrosystems Phils. Automobile manufacturer that have plants located in Calamba City are Asian Transmission Corporation and Suzuki Philippines Inc. Avon, the leading global beauty company has a manufacturing plant (Avon Products Manufacturing) located at Calamba Premiere International Park. Calamba City is also considered as one of the "Next Wave Cities" for outsourcing firms and call centers, among them are Accenture and SPi Technologies. Aside from the Crossing area in Barangay Uno, Barangays Real and Parian are also bustling with business structures, including SM City Calamba, Walter Mart Calamba and Liana's Discount Center Calamba. Notable shopping centers in Calamba also include Walter Mart Makiling, SM Savemore Parian, Puregold Halang, Puregold Calamba Crossing, Checkpoint Mall, and iMall Canlubang among others.